5S rDNA loci have been mapped on barley chromosomes by in situ hybridization using five reciprocal translocation lines. Two kinds of DNA probes covering either the 5S rDNA coding region or the 5S rDNA coding and flanking noncoding regions were used. They were prepared by direct cloning from interphase nuclei and simultaneous direct labeling in PCR. Four 5S rDNA loci were detected in a haploid genome by the 5S rDNA coding region, whereas in addition, the four or six 5S rDNA related sites, depending on the variety used, were revealed by the probe covering the flanking region. The four 5S rDNA loci revealed and mapped on the barley chromosomes: 2 (2I), 3 (3I), 1 (7I), and 4 (4I) were designated 5SRrn-I1, 5SRrn-I2, 5SRrn-I3 and 5SRrn-I4, respectively, in descending order of copy number of 5S rRNA genes.