The association between the failure of dental implants and cigarette smoking

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1993;8(6):609-15.


This paper reviews the outcome of 2,194 Brånemark implants placed in 540 patients by one of the authors over a 6-year period. The overall failure rate of 5.92% is consistent with other studies; however, when patients were subdivided into smokers and nonsmokers, it was found that a significantly greater percentage of failures occurred in smokers (11.28%) than in nonsmokers (4.76%) (P < .001). These differences were significant for all areas except the posterior mandible. While failure rates decreased with increasing implant length, failure rates for each implant length were consistently higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The possible mechanisms of failure in smokers are discussed, and a protocol for cessation of smoking around the time of surgery is proposed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Dental Implants* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Prosthesis Failure
  • Regional Blood Flow / drug effects
  • Smoking / adverse effects*


  • Dental Implants