We sequenced and analyzed 97.6 kb of new DNA sequence containing the human TCRAC (C alpha) and TCRDC (C delta) genes as well as the TCRDV3 (V delta 3) and 61 different TCRAJ (J alpha) gene segments and compared its organization and structure to the previously described mouse T-cell receptor TCRAC/TCRDC (C alpha/C delta) region. A comprehensive nomenclature, consistent with the IUIS nomenclature committee recommendations, for both human and mouse TCRAJ gene segments is presented. In the human sequence, we identified 20 new TCRAJ gene segments and obtained the germline sequence for 23 additional TCRAJ gene segments known from cDNA clones. Using the sequence data obtained from the human TCRAC/TCRDC region, we have extended a polymerase chain reaction-based assay to test for the expression of the individual TCRAJ gene segments. At least five TCRAJ pseudogene segments were identified by sequence criteria. Like the murine TCRAC/TCRDC sequence, this sequence contains a high level of coding sequence, with over 6.6% of the total sequence being transcribed. Comparison of the human sequence with the previously reported mouse DNA sequence reveals homologous counterparts for the variable and joining (J) gene segments and both constant genes. Eleven new J pseudogene segments have been identified in the mouse TCRAC/TCRDC sequence through the use of human and mouse sequence comparisons. In terms of structure and organization, this region of the human and mouse genome appears to be remarkably conserved.