Brucellosis is endemic in certain parts of the world. Musculoskeletal involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis, and the spine is most frequently affected. Between November 1985 and March 1993, 334 patients with radiologically proved musculoskeletal brucellosis were seen. Involvement of the spine was either focal or diffuse, with a predilection to the lumbar region. Erosions and sclerosis in vertebral end plates, changes of inflammation at scintigraphy or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and intact disks were hallmarks of the focal form. Osteomyelitis of neighboring vertebrae, involvement of the intervening disk, and moderate epidural extension were features of diffuse brucellar spondylitis. The great majority of joints with scintigraphic evidence of disease demonstrated normal radiographic findings. Evidence of osteomyelitis or destructive arthritis was encountered in only a few cases. Although radiography is sufficient for demonstrating focal brucellosis, MR imaging is better for assessing diffuse disease.