Patients with end-stage renal disease are being maintained for longer periods with dialysis or renal transplantation. Although renal failure itself is associated with occlusive peripheral vascular disease, such patients often have additional comorbid risk factors. In this series, 88% of patients were diabetic, 93% were hypertensive, and 44% were smokers, all factors that exacerbate the severity of their vasculopathy. As a consequence, the vascular surgeon is increasingly being confronted with limb-threatening peripheral vascular disease in this population. We performed 34 infrainguinal bypasses in 27 patients during a 8-year period from 1986 to 1993. Fifty percent of these were bypasses to the infrapopliteal level. The 12- and 48-month graft patency was 64% and 38%, respectively, by life-table analysis. The limb salvage rate was 65% and 58% at 12 and 48 months. The perioperative mortality rate was 5.9% and the morbidity rate was 37%. Most of the limb loss (66%) occurred during the first 3 months after surgery as a result of acute graft occlusion or nonhealing of an ulcer or minor amputation site. We believe that this reflects an increasingly aggressive approach to limb salvage in patients with end-stage renal disease. Four limbs were lost despite a patent graft. Infrainguinal bypass is a viable management option for limb salvage in patients with end-stage renal disease. These procedures can be undertaken with acceptable perioperative mortality and with a 12-month limb salvage rate of 65%.