This study examined 120 infants, aged 3-12 weeks, with severe colics and compared the results of a specific hypoallergenic diet (group A) with those of pharmacological treatment (group B). Non-breast-fed group A infants received soy milk and if unresponsive, hydrolyzed milk formulas; mothers of breast-fed infants received a diet without cow's milk, eggs or fish. Breast-fed and non-breast-fed group B infants received dicyclomine hydrochloride 3 mg/kg/day. Results, based on quantitative measurements of crying, indicated that in breast-fed infants there was no significant improvement between group A (62.5%) and group B (66.6%) infants. Among formula-fed infants, comparison of positive results using soy milk (65.9%) with positive results using dicyclomine (53.3%) was not significant; positive results using soy milk and hydrolyzed milk formulas in non-responders to soy milk, provided an improvement in 95.4% of cases. Pharmacological treatment provided an improvement in 53.3% of cases. The difference was significant (p < 0.01).