MAP kinase kinase kinase, MAP kinase kinase and MAP kinase

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994 Feb;4(1):82-9. doi: 10.1016/0959-437x(94)90095-7.


Signal transduction pathways that respond to external signals through the MAP kinase family of protein kinases are involved in diverse responses in eukaryotic cells. MAP kinases are one element in a series of kinases that serve to connect the plasma membrane with cytoplasmic and nuclear events. MAP kinases have the unusual feature that their activation requires threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation carried out by a dual specificity protein kinase. Recent advances have shown that in two MAP kinase pathways (the mating response pathway in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling), the small GTP binding protein ras p21 links membrane events to kinase pathway activation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / physiology*
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • Protein Kinases / physiology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Protein Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases