The effect of the non-NMDA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and NBQX and the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist D-CPPene on the development of amygdala kindling and on amygdala-kindled seizures

Epilepsy Res. 1994 Feb;17(2):167-74. doi: 10.1016/0920-1211(94)90016-7.


A competitive (NBQX) and a non-competitive (GYKI 52466) AMPA antagonist, and a competitive NMDA antagonist (D-CPPene) were tested against the development of kindling and against fully kindled seizures in amygdala-kindled rats. GYKI 52466, 10 mg/kg given i.p. 5 min prior to electrical stimulation in fully kindled animals, reduces both the cortical after-discharge duration and the behavioural seizure score. GYKI 52466, 20 mg/kg, reduces seizure score and after-discharge duration significantly (after 5-30 min) but the animals show severe motor side effects and an irregular cortical and hippocampal EEG. Administration of GYKI 52466, 10 mg/kg, prior to kindling stimulation on days 3-8, does not slow the development of kindling. NBQX, 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg i.p., 30 min prior to stimulation, significantly reduces the seizure score in fully kindled animals. NBQX 20 mg/kg i.p. has no effect on the development of kindling. D-CPPene, 8 mg/kg or 12 mg/kg, 120 min prior to stimulation reduces the behavioural seizure score in fully kindled animals. D-CPPene, 8 mg/kg on days 3-8, delays the development of kindling. NMDA receptors play a key role in the kindling process. Expression of kindled seizures involves non-NMDA and NMDA receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amygdala / drug effects
  • Amygdala / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents*
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Benzodiazepines / pharmacology*
  • Electric Stimulation
  • Kindling, Neurologic / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Piperazines / pharmacology*
  • Quinoxalines / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptors, AMPA / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Seizures / chemically induced
  • Seizures / physiopathology


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Piperazines
  • Quinoxalines
  • Receptors, AMPA
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  • GYKI 52466
  • 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline
  • Benzodiazepines
  • SDZ EAA 494