Affect intensity (AI) is a characteristic of temperament that has been hypothesized to moderate the influence of mood on cognitive processing. To test predictions concerning this interaction, 132 women were divided into groups of high and low AI and received positive, neutral, or negative mood inductions. They then engaged in either a self-generated or didactic learning task, and the effects of mood and AI on recall and recognition performance were assessed. Consistent with predictions, positive mood led to poorer performance for high AI relative to low AI individuals, and negative mood resulted in a converse pattern of outcomes. The results are discussed with reference to implications for the AI construct and mood-induction research.