Since oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is more atherogenic than native LDL, LDL oxidation was investigated in uremic patients who often develop accelerated atherogenesis. Three groups of uremic patients were studied (10 on predialysis conservative therapy, 11 on repetitive hemodialysis, 13 on peritoneal dialysis) and compared with seventy matched controls. LDL oxidation was evaluated in all patients as: (i) the susceptibility to in vitro oxidation (by measuring the resistance to Cu(++)-induced formation of conjugated dienes), (ii) vitamin E concentration in LDL, and (iii) presence of plasma anti-oxidized LDL antibodies, expressed as the ratio anti-oxLDL/anti-nativeLDL antibodies. The lipid profile was studied in all patients. Vitamin E concentration did not differ between the various groups, although LDL from uremic patients appeared more susceptible to in vitro and in vivo oxidation (as demonstrated by an earlier generation of conjugated dienes and by the presence of an higher antibody ratio) compared to control subjects. Subclass analysis of the different patients revealed that peritoneal dialysis treatment ameliorated the oxidation markers. However, a prolonged dialytic treatment caused a decrease in vitamin E concentration in LDL and increased their susceptibility to oxidation.