Socioeconomic status and end-stage renal disease in the United States

Kidney Int. 1994 Mar;45(3):907-11. doi: 10.1038/ki.1994.120.


The incidence of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) varies markedly according to age, race, sex, and geographic characteristics of the population. We asked whether some of the variability in the incidence of treated ESRD (t-ESRD) was associated with differences in socioeconomic status and whether socioeconomic status could explain some of the effects of race on t-ESRD incidence. Demographic characteristics of incident cases of t-ESRD from the years 1983 to 1988 were obtained from the U.S. Renal Data System, which registers most treated cases of ESRD. The average race specific, per capita income of the county of residence, as determined from the Bureau of Health Professions Area Resource File, was used as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status. the incidence of t-ESRD for individuals < 60 years of age was modeled as a log-linear function of socioeconomic and demographic factors, including age, sex, the urban fraction of the county of residence, and the census geographic region. For both Whites and Blacks, the incidence of t-ESRD was higher for males and older age groups, as expected. In general, the incidence of t-ESRD was inversely related to income level. For Whites, the relative risk was 1.21 for income of $0 to 10.000, 1.11 for $10,000 to 15,000, 1.00 for $15,000 to 20,000 (reference), 0.89 for $20,000 to 25,000, and 0.77 for income > $25,000. For Blacks, the relative risk was 1.10 for income of $0 to 10,000, 1.20 for $10,000 to 15,000, 1.00 for $15,000 to 20,000 (reference), 0.81 for $20,000 to 25,000, and 0.69 for income > $25,000.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Income
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Racial Groups
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Social Class*
  • United States / epidemiology