The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids

Am J Hum Genet. 1994 Jun;54(6):1078-84.


Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage between markers in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on chromosome 15q11-q13 and ty-pos OCA. Analysis showed no obligatory crossovers between the alleles at the D15S12 locus and ty-pos OCA, suggesting that the D15S12 locus is very close to or part of the disease locus, which is postulated to be the human homologue, P, of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, p. Unlike caucasoid "ty-pos OCA" individuals, negroid ty-pos OCA individuals do not show any evidence of locus heterogeneity. Studies of allelic association between the polymorphic alleles detected at the D15S12 locus and ephelus status suggest that there was a single major mutation giving rise to ty-pos OCA without ephelides. There may, however, be two major mutations causing ty-pos OCA with ephelides, one associated with D15S12 allele 1 and the other associated with D15S12 allele 2. The two loci, GABRA5 and D15S24, flanking D15S12, are both hypervariable, and many different haplotypes were observed with the alleles at the three loci on both ty-pos OCA-associated chromosomes and "normal" chromosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Africa, Southern
  • Albinism, Oculocutaneous / ethnology
  • Albinism, Oculocutaneous / genetics*
  • Alleles
  • Black People / genetics*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15*
  • Genetic Linkage / genetics*
  • Genetic Markers
  • Haplotypes / genetics
  • Humans
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Phenotype


  • Genetic Markers