Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. The eye and adnexa are potential foci of neoplastic disease, either as primary sites or as sites of metastatic carcinoma. The most frequent anatomical site of ocular cancer is the eye, followed by the orbit, the conjunctiva, and the lacrimal gland. The average annual age-adjusted incidence of ocular cancer varies between 0.6 per 100,000 and 0.9 per 100,000 for the male population and between 0.5 per 100,000 and 0.8 per 100,000 for the female population. The distribution of eye cancer risk by age is bimodal, with peaks occurring during early childhood and again during adulthood. Retinoblastoma is the most common ocular malignancy in children, and uveal melanoma is the most common ocular malignancy in adults.