Choroidal nevi are found on routine fundus evaluations in 1% to 2% of patients. It is felt that these usually benign lesions are the precursors of choroidal malignant melanomas. The incidence of choroidal malignant melanoma in the United States is approximately 6 cases per 1 million persons per year. Diagnosis is multifactorial, based on the tumor's funduscopic, angiographic, and ultrasonographic appearance. Once a melanoma is diagnosed in a patient, a complete metastatic workup is performed. A small tumor is observed for change. Medium-sized tumors are treated with radioactive plaque therapy, external beam radiation, or enucleation. Large tumors are treated with enucleation with or without external beam radiation. Studies are underway to establish the optimum form of treatment.