Immunocytochemical techniques are employed to reveal colocalization of octopamine with FMRFamide related peptide in the locust ventral nervous system. In each unfused pregenital abdominal ganglia (A4-A6) there are 3 octopamine-like immunoreactive neurones. By combining intracellular Lucifer yellow staining with subsequent immunocytochemistry these are individually identified as the efferent dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurones DUM-1 and DUM-2, which innervate abdominal tergal and respectively sternal skeletal muscles, and DUM heart-1, an FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurone which projects to the heart and associated alary muscles. Colocalization of octopamine- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in DUM heart-1 is verified by alternate staining of consecutive sections. With respect to locust ventral ganglia, this investigation shows that colocalization of octopamine with an FMRFamide related peptide is restricted to a single DUM cell occurring in each abdominal ganglion 2-7, which most likely corresponds to segmental homologues of DUM heart-1.