Delivery and monitoring of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary hypertension

Crit Care Med. 1994 Jun;22(6):930-8. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199406000-00009.


Objective: The development of a safe, portable, accurate, and adaptable system to deliver nitric oxide to patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Design: A prospective, clinical study.

Setting: Tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit and cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Patients: One hundred twenty-three patients (median age 11 months, range 1 day to 72 yrs) with pulmonary hypertension who were administered nitric oxide between November 1991 and July 1993. Ninety-one patients were mechanically ventilated (volume-controlled ventilator, n = 53; pressure-controlled ventilator, n = 5; and a pressure-limited, time-cycled infant ventilator, n = 25). The system was adapted to allow high-frequency oscillator (n = 2) or hand ventilation, and for intraoperative use with an anesthesia machine (n = 6). Thirty-two patients were breathing spontaneously through a mask without assistance.

Interventions: Nitric oxide was delivered at 10 to 80 parts per million (ppm); the dose was adjusted independently of the FIO2 without altering minute ventilation or tidal volume.

Measurements and main results: Nitrogen dioxide was continuously monitored and exceeded 3 ppm in only four patients. Methemoglobin concentrations were < 5% in all but four patients. Nitric oxide doses remained stable, independent of minute ventilation and could be changed easily and quickly.

Conclusions: Inhaled nitric oxide can be administered precisely and reliably through a variety of delivery systems which can be used in patients of any size. Potential toxicity requires careful monitoring and continued improvement on apparatus design.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Drug Delivery Systems* / instrumentation
  • Drug Delivery Systems* / methods
  • Drug Monitoring / instrumentation
  • Drug Monitoring / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / therapy*
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitric Oxide / administration & dosage*
  • Nitric Oxide / adverse effects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiration, Artificial


  • Nitric Oxide