The efficacy of treatment of HPV infections was evaluated in 14 HIV-1 seropositive women. Disease evolution was evaluated at follow-up examinations, and findings were compared to those in 14 historic HIV-negative women who had received similar treatment. HPV sequences were demonstrated by Southern blot in 13/14 HIV-positive women and by in situ hybridization in 5/13 HIV-negative women. Types 6/11, 16, and 31/33/35 were equally distributed in both groups; type 18 was never detected. In all but one case, the same viral type was present in different lesions, and in recurrences. Among the HIV-positive women, integration of viral sequences had occurred in the dysplastic lesions in 2 of the 3 HPV-16-positive cases; both cases showed progression to carcinoma in situ within 1 to 2 years. Despite comparable treatment, the HIV-positive women showed lesion persistence or progression, while all HIV-negative women experienced regression.