Since feeding increases intestinal fluid and electrolyte losses in short bowel syndrome, an agent increasing postprandial small bowel absorption might have a therapeutic role. Peptide YY (PYY) has recently been shown to increase net small bowel absorption under basal conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether PYY can also augment postprandial absorption. Exteriorized, neurovascularly intact jejunal and ileal segments (25 cm Thiry-Vella loops) were created in dogs (n = 6) and gastrointestinal continuity was restored. Luminal perfusion with [14C]polyethylene glycol was used to calculate the change in water (H2O) and sodium (Na+) and chlorine (Cl-) ion fluxes after an oral meal. Changes in fluxes were also determined after a 2-hour infusion of a physiological dose of PYY (100 pmol/kg per hour). In a third series of experiments, fluxes were measured after a meal, during PYY infusion. Feeding increased small bowel absorption of fluid and electrolytes independent of the luminal content. This effect persisted for 2 hours after the meal. PYY infusion significantly augmented this proabsorptive response in both jejunum and ileum. These results suggest that PYY-agonists may have a therapeutic role in conditions such as short bowel syndrome where postprandial absorption is reduced.