This paper presents a review of the literature and clinical observations concerning the long-term professional care of all dental patients. Gingivitis, ubiquitous in the adult population, is often without significant consequences to the dentition; however, gingivitis may develop into periodontitis. Patients with gingivitis, therefore, should be monitored professionally, especially those patients with other risk factors (attachment loss, age, smoking, and abnormal tooth mobility). In patients without substantial attachment loss, professional examination, prophylaxis, and oral hygiene instruction should be provided once or twice a year, depending on the presence of other risk factors. All patients who have been treated for periodontitis should be recalled, after completion of treatment and a healing phase, every 3 to 4 months. Sites with active periodontitis should be re-treated. Topical use of fluorides is recommended.