Quantified magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was related to neuropsychological (NP) test scores in an asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive group, a non-demented AIDS/ARC group, a group of subjects with HIV-1 dementia, and a seronegative control group. The MRIs were quantified using three planimetric measures of brain structure: the bicaudate ratio (a measure of caudate region atrophy), the bifrontal ratio (a measure of frontal region atrophy), and the ventricle to brain ratio (a measure of overall cerebral atrophy). Cognitive performance was assessed with standard NP tests. Significant correlations between the MRI ratios and many of the NP tests were observed. Of the tests grooved pegboard, part B of the trail making test, the verbal fluency test, and the digit span forward were associated with MRI abnormalities. The bicaudate ratio was most closely associated with the NP tests. These findings indicate that ventricular enlargement, especially in the region of the caudate, is closely related to poor NP test performance in HIV-1 infection.