Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were studied both during a seizure and (in the same setting) in the interictal period; six patients were studied only in the interictal period, and one patient was studied only during a seizure. Studies during seizures all showed marked flow increases in areas presumed to participate in the seizure activity. This finding accords with earlier studies. All nine patients studied in the interictal phase showed, either spontaneously or during activation by intermittent light, focal flow increases in areas presumed to comprise the epileptic focus. These interictal hyperemic foci probably reflect subictal neuronal hyperactivity in epileptogenic nervous tissue. Only two of the patients had distinct epileptic electroencephalographic foci. It appears that rCBF studies can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the investigation of cortical epileptogenic lesions.