Background: The association of lipoprotein levels with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less well understood in women than in men. To better characterize any relationships, associations between CVD death and total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in women were explored using data from female participants in the Lipid Research Clinics' Follow-up Study.
Methods: Using a sample of 1405 women aged 50 to 69 years from the Lipid Research Clinics' Follow-up Study, age-adjusted CVD death rates and summary relative risk (RR) estimates by categories of lipid and lipoprotein levels were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to provide RR estimates adjusted for other CVD risk factors.
Results: Average follow-up was 14 years. High-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were strong predictors of CVD death in age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels were poorer predictors of CVD mortality. After adjustment for other CVD risk factors, HDL levels less than 1.30 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) were strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality (RR = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 2.75). Triglyceride levels were associated with increased CVD mortality at levels of 2.25 to 4.49 mmol/L (200 to 399 mg/dL) (RR = 1.65; 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.77) and 4.50 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) or greater (RR = 3.44; 95% CI, 1.65 to 7.20). At total cholesterol levels of 5.20 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) or greater and at all levels of LDL and triglycerides, women with HDL levels of less than 1.30 mmol/L (< 50 mg/dL) had CVD death rates that were higher than those of women with HDL levels of 1.30 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) or greater.
Conclusions: High-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels are independent lipid predictors of CVD death in women. Cholesterol screening guidelines should be re-evaluated to reflect the importance of HDL and triglyceride levels in determining CVD risk in women.