The study objective was to identify prognostic factors associated with survival in patients treated for acute leukemias who developed invasive aspergillosis (IA) during induction therapy. This retrospective analysis involved 21 patients treated in two hematologic centers over a six-year period. All were treated in protective isolated rooms with high-dose amphotericin B as soon as fungal infection was suspected. Ten (45%) of the twenty-one patients died. There was no statistical difference between the patients who survived and those who died in relation to the mean time of onset of IA or the total and mean daily dose of amphotericin B. On the other hand a favourable outcome correlated strongly with complete leukemic remission (p < 0.0001): all but one of the patients with objective residual leukemia died of IA, whereas all those who achieved complete hematological remission survived. In conclusion, it seems that the main vital prognostic factor in these leukemic patients with IA was the achievement of complete remission. We were unable to control IA in 10 of 11 patients with refractory leukemia, regardless of neutropenic status, despite early administration of high-dose amphotericin B. All the patients who achieved complete remission were successfully treated with amphotericin B.