A human homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF2/SWI2 and Drosophila brm genes potentiates transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor

EMBO J. 1993 Nov;12(11):4279-90. doi: 10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb06112.x.


Several of the SNF and SWI genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae code for proteins believed to assist transcriptional activators by relieving nucleosome repression. One of these proteins, SNF2/SWI2, has a homologue in Drosophila, a regulator of homeotic genes known as brahma or brm. In this report, we show that a counterpart of SNF2/SWI2 also exists in mice and humans. The human protein, designated hbrm, is a 180 kDa nuclear factor that can function as a transcriptional activator when fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain. The mouse homologue of hbrm is expressed in all mouse organs tested while hbrm was detected in some but not all investigated human cell lines. In cells failing to express the endogenous gene, transfected hbrm cooperates with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in transcriptional activation. However, hbrm had no effect on the activity of several other transcription factors, including the homeoprotein HNF-1. The co-operation between hbrm and GR required the DNA binding domain of GR and two separated regions of the hbrm protein, including a domain with homology to known helicases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA Helicases / metabolism
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genes, Insect
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins*
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Species Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transcriptional Activation


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • SMARCA1 protein, human
  • SMARCA2 protein, human
  • Smarca2 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors
  • SMARCA4 protein, human
  • Smarca4 protein, mouse
  • DNA Helicases

Associated data

  • GENBANK/X72889