Stimulation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 by cross-linking either Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma receptor II (Fc gamma RII) gave rise to the rapid phosphorylation of multiple intracellular proteins. The pattern of proteins that were phosphorylated appeared to be identical. Analysis of these proteins by specific immunoprecipitation indicated that stimulation through either receptor did indeed give rise to phosphorylation of the same set of proteins. These included: Fc gamma RII, phospholipase C (PLC) gamma 1, PLC gamma 2, Vav, GAP, and a protein that co-precipitated with the Fc gamma receptors and migrated with a molecular weight of about 70,000. Co-cross-linking an F(ab')2 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody together with monoclonal antibodies to either of the Fc gamma receptors inhibited phosphorylation of all these proteins. Analysis of the tyrosine kinases in the cells revealed that both receptors stimulated the phosphorylation and activation of a kinase recognized by antibodies to Syk. Furthermore, the Syk kinase became associated with the Fc gamma RII following receptor cross-linking. These data indicate that although the two Fc gamma receptors have different cytoplasmic tails, they are coupled to the same signal transduction cascade that is regulated by CD45 and involves the activation of Syk.