Recombinant A-B+ Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR is a safe, highly immunogenic, single-dose live oral vaccine in adults in industrialized countries. Safety, excretion, immunogenicity, vaccine transmissibility, and environmental introduction of CVD 103-HgR were investigated among 24- to 59-month-old children in Jakarta. In 81 households, 1 child was randomly allocated a single dose of vaccine (5 x 10(9) cfu) and another, placebo. Additionally, 139 unpaired children were randomly allocated vaccine or placebo. During 9 days of follow-up, diarrhea or vomiting did not occur more often among vaccines than controls. Vaccine was minimally excreted and was isolated from no controls and from 1 (0.6%) of 177 unvaccinated family contacts. A 4-fold or higher rise in serum vibriocidal antibody was observed in 75% of vaccines (10-fold rise in geometric mean titer over baseline). Of 135 paired placebo recipients or household contacts, 5 had vibriocidal seroconversions. Moore swabs placed in sewers and latrines near 97 households failed to detect vaccine. These observations pave the way for a large-scale field trial of efficacy.