To understand reasons for cytomegalovirus (CMV) recurrence, a cohort of 350 CMV-seropositive pregnant women attending obstetric clinics in Taiwan was examined for cervical or urinary CMV shedding. Urine specimens were collected from 350 women and cervical secretion specimens were collected from 220 women. We measured the association of various factors with CMV recurrence, which was defined as viral shedding identified by the presence of a CMV-specific gene sequence amplified by the polymerase chain reaction in seropositive individuals. CMV recurrence status was independently associated with a sexual activity composite variable, which was defined by three sexual activity indicators: age at first sexual intercourse, total years of sexual experience, and average frequency of sexual intercourse prior to pregnancy. Pregnant women with a history of genital tract infection were more likely than women without such history to experience cervical CMV recurrence. Similarly, pregnant women with previous urinary tract infections were more likely to experience urinary CMV recurrence. The findings indicate that multiple exposure to CMV by sexual activity prior to pregnancy is an important determinant of CMV recurrence during pregnancy.