The use of tranquilizers, hypnotics and analgesics among 18,592 Finnish adults: associations with recent interpersonal conflicts at work or with a spouse

J Clin Epidemiol. 1993 Nov;46(11):1315-22. doi: 10.1016/0895-4356(93)90100-f.


The use of tranquilizers, hypnotics, and analgesics was assessed by a postal questionnaire in a nationwide sample of 18,592 adults aged from 24 to 65 years: 14,800 employees, 2105 housewives and 687 unemployed persons. The use of tranquilizers was most frequent among unemployed persons whereas housewives did not use the studied medicines more than the employed women. In the multivariate analyses (adjusted for age, social class and neuroticism) unmarried status was associated with the use of tranquilizers and hypnotics among both genders. Reported recent interpersonal conflicts both at work and with a spouse were associated with the use of tranquilizers among men, whereas among women significant associations were found only for conflicts with a spouse. These results indicate that domestic factors are more likely to predict women's tranquilizer use.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analgesics / therapeutic use*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Employment / psychology
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use*
  • Interpersonal Relations*
  • Male
  • Marriage / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / complications
  • Stress, Psychological / drug therapy
  • Stress, Psychological / etiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tranquilizing Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Unemployment / psychology


  • Analgesics
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Tranquilizing Agents