Cloning and expression of cytochrome P450 genes controlling flower colour

Nature. 1993 Nov 18;366(6452):276-9. doi: 10.1038/366276a0.


Blue and violet flowers generally contain derivatives of delphinidin; red and pink flowers generally contain derivatives of cyanidin or pelargonidin. Differences in hydroxylation patterns of these three major classes of anthocyanidins are controlled by the cytochrome P450 enzymes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase. Here we report on the isolation of complementary DNA clones of two different flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes that are expressed in petunia flowers. Restriction-fragment length polymorphism mapping and complementation of mutant petunia lines showed that the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes correspond to the genetic loci Hf1 and Hf2.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anthocyanins / metabolism
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • DNA
  • Genes, Plant*
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plants / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Anthocyanins
  • DNA
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase
  • flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/Z22544
  • GENBANK/Z22545