The long-term relationships between various forms of childhood adversity and adult episodes of major depression are explored in a representative household survey of the United States adult (age 25+) population. Seven of the eight childhood adversities considered are significantly associated with recent (12-month) episodes of depression. These effects are largely indirect consequences of some childhood adversities leading to a life history of depression and prior depression leading to new episodes. Only three of the eight childhood adversities directly affect recent onset or recurrence. The paper closes with a discussion of implications for future research on the long-term effects of childhood adversities.