Interpretation of urine results used to assess chemical exposure with emphasis on creatinine adjustments: a review

Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993 Oct;54(10):615-27. doi: 10.1080/15298669391355134.


This paper reviews the process of elimination of creatinine (CRE), and the limitations presented when using it to express urine concentrations. This literature review leads to three conclusions: (1) CRE excretion is subject to wide fluctuations due to specific internal and external factors; (2) the use of CRE to correct chemical concentrations in urine will not necessarily improve the correlation to the exposure dose for all chemicals (it may, in fact, worsen the result); and (3) other means of expressing urine concentration may offer greater accuracy towards estimating individually absorbed dose.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Body Constitution
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Creatinine / urine*
  • Diet
  • Diuresis
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Occupational Exposure / analysis*
  • Sex Factors


  • Creatinine