The objectives were to determine 1) respiratory responses to carotid chemoreceptor inputs in anesthetized rats and 2) whether the cerebellar vermis plays a role in these responses. A carotid sinus nerve was stimulated (20 Hz) with five 2-min trains, each separated by approximately 3 min. During stimulation, respiratory frequency (f), peak amplitude of integrated phrenic nerve activity (integral of Phr), and their product (f x integral of Phr) immediately increased. As stimulation continued, integral of Phr progressively increased to a plateau [short-term potentiation (STP)], but f and f x integral of Phr decreased [short-term depression (STD)] to a value still above control. Upon stimulus termination, integral of Phr progressively decreased but remained above control; f and f x integral of Phr transiently decreased below baseline. After the final stimulation, integral of Phr remained above control for at least 30 min [long-term facilitation (LTF)]. Repeated 5-min episodes of isocapnic hypoxia also elicited STP, STD, and LTF. Vermalectomy lowered the CO2-apneic threshold and eliminated LTF. In conclusion, carotid chemoreceptor activation in rats elicits STP and LTF similar to that in cats; the vermis may play a role in LTF. A new response, STD, was observed.