Phase advances of circadian locomotor rhythms in response to the benzodiazepine triazolam (TRZ) administered at circadian time 6 appear to be mediated by locomotor activity. The possibility that increased activity also mediates shifts induced by the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) was investigated. Hamsters injected with CDZ 7 h before dark onset exhibited phase advances despite being confined to their nest boxes for 3 h after receiving the drug. These shifts did not differ significantly from advances seen in hamsters which were allowed access to the rest of the cage after injections. In other experiments, the behavioral effects of both CDZ and TRZ were examined during the 5 h after injection. There was significantly more motor activity observed after injection of TRZ than CDZ. These results suggest that phase-shifting effects of some benzodiazepines can occur without inducing activity.