Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with neutropenia. Two severe complications with poor outcome can be observed after apparently successful IPA medical treatment: severe hemoptysis and IPA relapse during subsequent cytotoxic treatments. Early surgical therapy has not been considered routinely in the management of localized IPA.
Methods: Six consecutive patients (four women, two men; median age, 52 years) with localized cavitating IPA diagnosed during chemotherapy-induced aplasia were treated with early surgical resection after hematologic recovery.
Results: All patients received a lobectomy. Surgery was uneventful. This procedures allows patients to proceed with further intensive chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation without IPA reactivation.
Conclusions: For selected patients, surgical resection of localized IPA with unique cavitating lesion, which prevents hemoptysis and IPA recurrence and allows for subsequent cytotoxic treatment, may be recommended.