Effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I and insulin on counterregulation during acute plasma glucose decrements in normal and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects

Diabetologia. 1993 Oct;36(10):966-71. doi: 10.1007/BF02374481.


Insulin-like growth factor I (65 micrograms/kg) or insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were injected i.v. on two separate occasions in random order in normal and in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. Insulin-like growth factor I and insulin injection resulted in identical decrements of plasma glucose concentrations after 30 min but in delayed recovery after insulin-like growth factor I as compared to insulin in both groups (p < 0.05 insulin-like growth factor I vs insulin). Counterregulatory increases in plasma glucagon, adrenaline, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations after hypoglycaemia (1.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l) in normal subjects were blunted after insulin-like growth factor I administration compared to insulin (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose in Type 2 diabetic subjects did not reach hypoglycaemic levels but the acute glucose decrease to 4.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/l was associated with significantly lower responses of plasma glucagon and adrenaline but higher cortisol levels after insulin-like growth factor I compared to insulin (p < 0.003). Plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and leucine decreased similarly after insulin-like growth factor I and insulin in both groups. The present results demonstrate that insulin-like growth factor I is capable of mimicking the acute effects of insulin on metabolic substrates (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, leucine). The decreases of plasma glucose were similar after both peptides in normal and in diabetic subjects who were presumably insulin resistant. Counterregulatory hormone responses to plasma glucose decrements differed, however, between insulin-like growth factor I and insulin and in the diabetic and the control subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology
  • Epinephrine / blood
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Female
  • Glucagon / blood
  • Growth Hormone / blood
  • Hormones / blood*
  • Hormones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology*
  • Kinetics
  • Leucine / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Norepinephrine / blood
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology*


  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Hormones
  • Insulin
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Growth Hormone
  • Glucagon
  • Leucine
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Norepinephrine
  • Epinephrine