An association of HLA-DQ3 with SCC of the cervix has been reported by researchers in Germany and Norway. This article documents a similar-sized study with patients and controls from northwest England. We report in detail on serologically determined HLA polymorphism in SCC patients with respect to HPV 16 infection, MHC class II expression within the tumor, serologic response to HPV, and other relevant clinical variables. We have also extended our studies to include DNA-based analysis using PCR and SSO probes for HLA-DQ. No significant association of any HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, or -DQ antigen with SCC patients was found. While a possible explanation of the differences among studies could be a reflection of disease heterogeneity, the several tumor and clinical factors examined do not account for the observed differences from previous reports. Further studies are needed for a greater understanding of the interaction of HPV and HLA type in the development of cervical neoplasia.