To date, relatively little work has been done to develop or evaluate effective inpatient quit-smoking treatment programs. However, there is growing interest in programs that motivate and assist the hospitalized smoker to quit smoking and remain abstinent. This article presents the rationale for hospital-based smoking treatment programs and introduces a practical minimal-contact treatment model based on extensive studies of primary-care-based and self-help interventions, on a limited number of inpatient studies, and on several prominent theories of health behavior change. Recent controlled and exploratory studies of inpatient interventions are reviewed, including programs for the general medical population and programs for special patient groups such as patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, cancer, and drug or alcohol dependency. Major findings are summarized, and recommendations are given for future treatment and research.