Low Serum Levels of Oral Antimycobacterial Agents in Patients With Disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Complex Disease

J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;168(6):1559-62. doi: 10.1093/infdis/168.6.1559.

Abstract

Twenty-seven human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease who were treated with oral antimycobacterial agents (clofazimine, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, and rifampin) were studied to evaluate the usefulness of monitoring serum drug concentrations and testing in vitro susceptibility of M. avium complex (MAC) isolates. Twenty patients tolerated treatment with three or four antimycobacterial agents for at least 8 weeks; mycobacteremia was eradicated in 7 (35%). The in vitro susceptibilities of MAC isolates to antimycobacterial agents were similar for these 7 and for the 13 who did not respond to antimycobacterial treatment. Serum drug levels were below the expected range in 6 of the 7 whose mycobacteremia was cleared and in 9 of the 13 nonresponders (P = .41). These low serum concentrations of antimycobacterial drugs may be due to impaired drug absorption in patients with AIDS and disseminated MAC disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / blood
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy*
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / blood
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Ciprofloxacin / administration & dosage
  • Ciprofloxacin / blood
  • Ciprofloxacin / therapeutic use
  • Clofazimine / administration & dosage
  • Clofazimine / blood
  • Clofazimine / therapeutic use
  • Drug Monitoring
  • Ethambutol / administration & dosage
  • Ethambutol / blood
  • Ethambutol / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mycobacterium avium Complex / drug effects
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / blood
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / complications
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / drug therapy*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rifampin / administration & dosage
  • Rifampin / blood
  • Rifampin / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Ethambutol
  • Clofazimine
  • Rifampin