The radiological findings for the profusion of rounded opacities were compared to pathological findings for parenchymal silicosis in 557 gold miners who had, on average, 2.7 years between the radiological and pathological examination. Three readers read the radiographs, and ILO category 1/1 or more was defined as a positive diagnosis of silicosis. The sensitivity values were 0.393, 0.371, and 0.236, and the specificity values were 0.987, 0.965, and 0.978, for the three readers, respectively. The sensitivity of the readers improved with increasing degree of autopsy silicosis, but a large proportion of those with a moderate and marked degree of silicosis were not diagnosed radiologically. The diagnostic sensitivity of the radiological test could be improved by using category 0/1 as a cutoff point for workers exposed to a high average concentration of respirable silica dust. The diagnostic specificity of radiology could be improved by using category 1/0 or 1/1 as a cutoff point for a positive diagnosis for workers exposed to a low average concentration of respirable silica dust.