Antigenic and genetic analysis of a recently isolated H1N1 swine influenza virus

Am J Vet Res. 1993 Oct;54(10):1630-6.


Hemagglutinins (HA) of H1N1 swine influenza viruses isolated in the United States have remained antigenically and genetically conserved for many years. In contrast to such conservation, the HA of A/Swine/Nebraska/1/92 (Sw/Neb) could readily be distinguished from those of contemporary porcine viruses. Twenty-eight amino acid mutations differentiated the HA of Sw/Neb and A/Swine/Indiana/1726/88, the most recent H1N1 swine influenza virus for which HA sequence data were available. Among these differences were mutations at potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and charge changes at many residues. The Sw/Neb virus also could be differentiated from other swine influenza viruses in hemagglutination-inhibition assays with monoclonal antibodies to recent H1 swine HA. Nonetheless, overall sequence analysis of the HA and the nucleoprotein genes of Sw/Neb indicated that this virus was more closely related genetically to classic H1N1 swine influenza viruses than to H1N1 avian or human viruses. Infection of swine with Sw/Neb under experimental conditions induced clinical signs and lesions typical of swine influenza. However, affected swine in the field had high, persistent fevers, but relatively mild signs of respiratory tract disease. This study indicated that an antigenically and genetically novel variant of swine influenza virus was detected in the United States.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Chick Embryo
  • Genes, Viral / genetics*
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests / veterinary
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype*
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neuraminidase / metabolism
  • Nucleoproteins / genetics
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / microbiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / pathology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / veterinary
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / microbiology
  • Swine Diseases / pathology
  • Viral Proteins / genetics


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral
  • Nucleoproteins
  • Viral Proteins
  • Neuraminidase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/L20162
  • GENBANK/L20163
  • GENBANK/L20164
  • GENBANK/L20165
  • GENBANK/L20166
  • GENBANK/S67220
  • GENBANK/U10136
  • GENBANK/U10137
  • GENBANK/U10138
  • GENBANK/U10139