Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is an autosomal dominant neuropathy that can be caused by dominant point mutations in PMP22 which encodes a peripheral nerve myelin protein. Usually, CMT1A is caused by the duplication of a 1.5-megabase (Mb) region on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 containing PMP22. Deletion of a similar 1.5-Mb region is associated with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), a clinically distinct neuropathy. We have identified a severely affected CMT1 patient who is a compound heterozygote for a recessive PMP22 point mutation, and a 1.5 Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12. A son heterozygous for the PMP22 point mutation had no signs of neuropathy, while two others heterozygous for the deletion had HNPP, suggesting that point mutations in PMP22 can result in dominant and recessive alleles contributing to CMT1A.