Medullary mu and delta opioid receptors modulate mesencephalic morphine analgesia in rats

Brain Res. 1993 Oct 8;624(1-2):151-61. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(93)90073-v.


Supraspinal opioid analgesia is mediated in part by connections between the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventral medulla (RVM) which includes the nuclei raphe magnus and reticularis gigantocellularis. Serotonergic 5HT2 and 5HT3 receptor subtypes appear to participate in this pathway since general and selective serotonergic antagonists microinjected into the RVM significantly reduced morphine analgesia elicited from the PAG. Since both an enkephalinergic pathway between the PAG and RVM and intrinsic enkephalinergic cells in the RVM exist, the present study evaluated the abilities of general (naltrexone), mu-selective (beta-funaltrexamine: B-FNA) and delta 2-selective (naltrindole) opioid receptor subtype antagonists microinjected into the RVM to alter morphine (2.5 micrograms) analgesia elicited from the PAG as measured by the tail-flick and jump tests. Mesencephalic morphine analgesia was significantly reduced after pretreatment in the RVM with naltrexone (1-10 micrograms), B-FNA (0.5-5 micrograms) or naltrindole (0.5-5 micrograms). Naltrexone in the RVM failed to alter basal nociceptive thresholds and none of the opioid antagonists were effective in reducing mesencephalic morphine analgesia when they were microinjected into placements lateral or dorsal to the RVM. These data indicate that mu and delta 2 opioid receptors in the RVM modulate the transmission of opioid pain-inhibitory signals from the PAG.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Male
  • Medulla Oblongata / metabolism*
  • Mesencephalon / drug effects*
  • Morphine / pharmacology*
  • Naltrexone / analogs & derivatives
  • Naltrexone / pharmacology
  • Narcotic Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Opioid, delta / physiology*
  • Receptors, Opioid, mu / physiology*


  • Analgesics
  • Narcotic Antagonists
  • Receptors, Opioid, delta
  • Receptors, Opioid, mu
  • Naltrexone
  • beta-funaltrexamine
  • Morphine
  • naltrindole