Biolistic transformation of Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium virens using plasmid and genomic DNA

Curr Genet. 1993 Oct;24(4):349-56. doi: 10.1007/BF00336788.


Biolistic (biological ballistic) and protoplast-mediated procedures were compared as methods for transforming strains of Gliocladium virens and Trichoderma harzianum. For biolistic transformation, conidia were bombarded using a helium-driven biolistic device to accelerate M5 tungsten particles coated with plasmid or genomic DNA. DNA from either source contained a bacterial hygromycin B resistance gene (hygB) as a dominant selectable marker. The same sources of DNA were also used to transform protoplasts using a standard polyethylene glycol-CaCl2 protoplast fusion protocol. Hygromycin B-resistant (HygBR) transformants were recovered from all strains, methods, and DNA sources except for genomic DNA used with the protoplast method. The biolistic procedure was technically simpler, and increased transformation frequency and genetic stability in the progeny as compared with the protoplast-mediated transformation. Southern analysis of homokaryotic HygBR progenies showed that the transforming sequences were integrated into the genome of the recipient strains, and apparently were methylated. This is the first study presenting detailed results on biolistic transformation of a filamentous fungus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blotting, Southern
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • DNA, Fungal
  • Genome, Fungal
  • Mitosporic Fungi / genetics*
  • Plasmids*
  • Protoplasts / metabolism
  • Transformation, Genetic*
  • Trichoderma / genetics*


  • DNA, Fungal