This study aims to predict adherence to diabetic treatment regimens and sustained diabetic control. During two clinic visits that were 2 months apart, 63 adult outpatients completed measures of diabetic history, current treatment, diabetic control, adherence, and self-efficacy about adherence to treatment. Results showed that self-efficacy was a significant predictor of later adherence to diabetes treatment even after past levels of adherence were taken into account. Posttest levels of adherence in turn were significantly associated with posttest %HbA1c after control for illness severity. A stepwise multiple regression to predict %HbA1c at post entered pretest measures of diabetic control, treatment type, and self-efficacy, which together predicted 50% of the variance. Results are related to self-efficacy theory and implications for practice are discussed.