1. Autoantibodies in the Sm complex have become a useful serologic aid in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and have rarely been observed in other diseases. 2. A subset of SLE patients have a variety of psychiatric abnormalities, including schizophrenia. 3. The authors have recently observed that schizophrenic patients have a high incidence of autoantibodies suggesting that autoimmune phenomena may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. 4. In the present study the authors investigated multicase families with schizophrenia for the presence of anti-Sm antibodies and showed that these autoantibodies are elevated both in patients and in their healthy relatives. 5. An autoimmune process may be involved in the pathology of schizophrenia.