Effectiveness of rifampin, rifabutin, and rifapentine for preventive therapy of tuberculosis in mice

Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec;148(6 Pt 1):1541-6. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm/148.6_Pt_1.1541.

Abstract

To identify alternative regimens for preventive therapy of tuberculosis, the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial activities of rifampin (RMP), rifabutin (RBT), and rifapentine (RPT) were compared in BCG-vaccinated and M. tuberculosis-infected immunocompetent mice. RPT showed the highest serum peak level (Cmax) and the longest half-life (t1/2), whereas RBT displayed the lowest Cmax and the shortest t1/2. On weight-to-weight basis, both RPT and RBT were more bactericidal than RMP. The activity of RMP was significantly reduced when the frequency of administration was reduced from six to three times weekly, whereas significant bactericidal activity was still observed in mice treated with RPT, 10 mg/kg up to once fortnightly, or RBT, 10 mg/kg twice weekly. Because the bactericidal activity of RBT, 10 mg/kg six times/wk for 6 wk, or RPT, 10 mg/kg two times/wk for 12 wk, was comparable to that of RMP, 10 mg/kg six times/wk for 12 wk in mice, the two regimens are appropriate for clinical trials of preventive therapy of tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antitubercular Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Female
  • Mice
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / drug effects
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / isolation & purification
  • Rifabutin / pharmacokinetics
  • Rifabutin / therapeutic use*
  • Rifampin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Rifampin / pharmacokinetics
  • Rifampin / therapeutic use*
  • Spleen / microbiology
  • Tuberculosis / microbiology
  • Tuberculosis / prevention & control*

Substances

  • Antitubercular Agents
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Rifabutin
  • Rifampin
  • rifapentine