Incidence and management of dysrhythmias after Fontan procedure

Herz. 1993 Oct;18(5):318-27.


The modified Fontan procedure for univentricular heart disease results in the full spectrum of significant cardiac arrhythmias: tachycardias and bradycardias. The tachycardias are primarily supraventricular in origin: 1. atrial flutter, 2. primary atrial tachycardia, 3. atrial fibrillation, and 4. accelerated junctional rhythm or junctional tachycardia; however, ventricular tachyarrhythmias occur also, but less frequently. Bradycardia usually is a result of 1. sinoatrial node dysfunction resulting in junctional rhythm or 2. less commonly, atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, such as second degree and third degree atrioventricular block. Finally, the combination of atrial tachyarrhythmias and sinoatrial node dysfunction can occur in a small but significant number of patients after Fontan surgery. A complete array of medical and pacemaker therapeutic options is necessary for the physician to treat these difficult arrhythmias successfully.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / drug therapy
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / physiopathology*
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
  • Electrocardiography / drug effects
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Heart Ventricles / abnormalities*
  • Heart Ventricles / drug effects
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology
  • Heart Ventricles / surgery
  • Humans
  • Postoperative Complications / drug therapy
  • Postoperative Complications / physiopathology*


  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents