In thirteen preterm infants receiving surfactant (Curosurf) replacement therapy, changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation were investigated by near infrared spectroscopy. Surfactant instillation led to an instantaneous increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) in all infants, which was primarily due to an increase in deoxygenated hemoglobin. Five infants received a low dose (100 mg/kg = 1.25 ml/kg) of surfactant and 8 a high dose (200 mg/kg = 2.50 ml/kg). A significantly larger increase in CBV was observed in the infants receiving a high dose compared to those receiving a low dose of surfactant. We conclude that cerebral perfusion is affected more after the instillation of a high dose compared to a low dose of surfactant.