The effects of the time of day of drug administration on the subchronic toxicity and pharmacokinetics of gentamicin, as well as the role of feeding schedule on circadian rhythms, were investigated in mice. ICR male mice were housed in a light-dark (LD) cycle (12:12) with food and water ad libitum (ALF) or under a time-restricted feeding (TRF) schedule (feeding time: 8 h during the light phase) for 1 day or 14 days before drug administration. The animals were given a single subcutaneous dose of gentamicin 180 mg/kg for the kinetic studies and subcutaneous doses of gentamicin 180 mg/kg/day for 14 days or 220 mg/kg/day for 18 days for the subchronic toxicity studies. A significant dosing-time dependency was shown for mortality and body weight loss, with higher values at midlight and lower ones at the middark (p < 0.05). A significant circadian rhythm was also found for gentamicin kinetics in ALF mice, with the highest clearance at middark and the lowest one at midlight (p < 0.01). The kinetic rhythm of gentamicin coincided well with the toxicity rhythm of the drug. The TRF schedule had a marked influence on the rhythms of gentamicin kinetics and toxicity, showing lowest clearance and higher toxicity at middark. The rhythm of subchronic toxicity of gentamicin seems to be due, at least in part, to the rhythm in kinetics and is strongly influenced by the feeding schedule. Thus, the timing of dosing is an important factor in the kinetics and the subchronic toxicity of gentamicin administration in mice, and the manipulation of feeding schedule can modify the rhythm of the toxicity by changing the rhythm of gentamicin kinetics.