Tropomodulin is expressed in skeletal muscle and recent studies suggest that tropomodulin is associated with synaptic membranes. Therefore, we have examined neuromuscular junctions by immunofluorescence analysis for tropomodulin localization. Anti-tropomodulin antibodies generated against either the whole protein or a 15-amino acid peptide fragment label human neuromuscular junctions as demonstrated by colocalization with alpha-bungarotoxin label. Tropomodulin labeling also colocalizes with desmin and beta-amyloid proteins which are concentrated in the postsynaptic region. Comparable results are found with immunostaining of neuromuscular junctions in rat diaphragm muscle. These immunofluorescence results suggest that tropomodulin is an integral component of the cytoskeletal lattice associated with the postsynaptic region of neuromuscular junctions.